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Addictions
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What is Addiction?What Causes Addiction?How Do You Get Addicted?
Introduction to How Do You Get Addicted? The Biology of Addiction and RecoveryHow Does Addiction Affect the Brain?Addiction Changes the Brain's ChemistryAddiction Changes the Brain's Communication PathwaysAddiction Changes Brain Structures and Their FunctioningImpaired Decision-making, Impulsivity, and Compulsivity: Addictions' Effect on the Cerebral CortexDrug Seeking and Cravings: Addictions' Effect on the Brain's Reward SystemHabit Formation, Craving, Withdrawal, and Relapse Triggers: Addictions' Effect on the AmygdalaStress Regulation and Withdrawal: Addictions' Effect on the HypothalamusThe Good News: The Brain Also Helps to Reverse Addiction The Psychology of Addiction and RecoveryLearning Theory and AddictionClassical Conditioning and AddictionOperant Conditioning and AddictionSocial Learning Theory and AddictionCognitive Theory and Addiction (Thoughts, Beliefs, Expectations)Cognitive Theory and Addiction ContinuedCognitive-Behavioral Therapy: Improving Coping SkillsAddiction and Other Psychological DisordersDevelopmental Theory and AddictionRecovery from Addiction: The Psychology of Motivation and ChangeAddiction: Social and Cultural InfluencesAddiction and Sociological Influences: Culture and EthnicityRecovery from Addiction: Becoming Aware of Cultural InfluencesRecovery from Addiction: The Powerful Influence of Families Recovery from Addiction: Social SupportThe Spirituality of Addiction & RecoveryThe Spirituality of Addiction & Recovery ContinuedIncorporating Spirituality into Recovery from Addiction
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Anxiety Disorders
Depression: Depression & Related Conditions
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

Addiction and Other Psychological Disorders

A. Tom Horvath, Ph.D., ABPP, Kaushik Misra, Ph.D., Amy K. Epner, Ph.D., and Galen Morgan Cooper, Ph.D. , edited by C. E. Zupanick, Psy.D.

Psychological issues can play a role in the formation of an addiction. Sometimes these problems preceded the addiction and the addiction served as a coping tool. Sometimes they developed after addiction.

Regardless of why these problems occurred, people must learn to address them. Otherwise, the risk of relapse is quite high. Sometimes, these various problems and difficulties indicate an underlying, unidentified psychological disorder. In fact, addiction and other psychological disorders occur together with a rather astonishing frequency. In this context, addiction may represent an attempt to relieve symptoms of other psychological disorders. Addiction professionals often call this self-medication. If these underlying disorders are not identified and treated along with the addiction, the risk of relapse remains quite high.

    • Anxiety (which includes trauma): 25% of alcohol dependent individuals and 40% of drug dependent individuals also have an anxiety diagnosis (Grant, Hasin, Stinson, Dawson, et al., 2005).

 

    • Mood disorders (which include depression and bipolar disorder): 25% of alcohol dependent individuals and 50% of drug dependent individuals also have a mood disorder diagnosis (Grant, et al.
    • 2005).

 

    • Personality disorder: 50% of alcohol dependent individuals and 70% of drug dependent individuals also have a personality disorder diagnosis (Grant, et al., 2005).

 

  • ADHD: 15-25% of adults with alcohol and drug use disorders also have an ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Wilens, 2006).